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About your skin

Knowing your skin is the first step to being able to look after it properly. You also need to
understand the difference between your skin type and your skin state. Once you know these, you will
be a step closer to finding the right products and treatments.

Just one thing: if your skin needs come from, or suggest, a medical condition, then you should consult your doctor first about the best course of action for you.

Find your skin type

Find your skin state

Normal skin

Neither oily or dry, normal skin is smooth, features small pores that are not easily visible.  It is without cracks or flakes and it is not especially shiny. Normal skin usually exhibits few fine lines and wrinkles, the skin’s tone is generally even, and it feels comfortable.

However, even normal skin may deal with occasional pimples, oiliness or dehydration, and face sun exposure and aging, and for women be affected hormonally by pregnancy and menopause.

Regardless if you have a normal skin, keeping it cleansed is essential for a healthy looking skin!

Therefore, if you have a normal skin type, you should use gentle cleansing products followed by products that don’t make your skin either overly greasy or that will cause dryness.

Even if you have a normal skin type it is important to consistently take care of it!

Oily skin

People with oily skin tend to notice a great deal of shine on their face, with large, visible pores and may deal with uncomfortable acne breakouts. Oily skin is due to both genetic factors and hormonal changes. Those with a genetic predisposition produce a higher amount of sebum, an oily substance created to help keep the skin soft and hydrated. 

The sebum flows from inside the oil glands toward the surface of the skin through pores and hair follicles.

When the body experiences a fluctuation in hormone levels, it signals the production of androgens, a hormone present in both men and women, that stimulates an increase in sebum production.

Overproduction leads to accumulation and growth of skin’s pores and result in blockages that become pimples and blemishes. Oily skin is acne-prone skin resulting in blackheads, whiteheads, and pustules or papules, requiring a varied approaches depending on severity.          

For the oily acne-prone skin, cleansing is paramount in order to prepare the skin for the required dermocosmetic topical treatment.  The treatment may be personalized depending if the acne is localized or not, and dependent on treatment, maintenance or after aggressive medicated treatment.

If you have an acne-prone skin, remember to always exfoliate once or twice a week!

Dry skin

People with dry skin feel tightness in their skin. They may have scaly patches or flaking and generally have almost invisible pores, and can suffer from premature wrinkles and regular skin irritation. People with very dry skin have a skin that becomes thinner, rough, with loss of suppleness and squams may appear.

 It will look a rough and matte, with small wrinkles, sore cracks, scales.

Ocasionally abnormal extreme dryness – Atopic Dermatitis and Eczema – induces itching. Cracks are gateways for pollutants/allergens as well as for bacterial and fungal infections with consecutive inflammatory reactions.

The atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin, with familial predisposition. In children, it is the most common cutaneous disease and it has become increasingly prevalent during recent years. Dry skin, redness and itchiness are the clinical manifestations of atopic dermatitis and the most frequent symptoms for which newborns and children go see a dermatologist.

Hydration is essential in the management of Atopic Dermatitis (AD) and the medical community has agreed that emollients represent the first line therapy for this condition.  Correction and prevention of reoccurance is key.

All moisturizing products claim skin topical hydration but there are significant differences among them, not only in terms of efficiency but also in how they work. There are 3 classes of moisturizing agents: Occlusive, Humectants and Hydration Inducers.

Finding the right product is not easy but an ideal emollient would include a combination of the three.

Combination skin

Combination skin has two or more different skin types on the face, this is the most common skin type and can sometimes be difficult to identify and treat.  It typically has dry and flaky skin on some parts of the face, and excessive oil on others. Many mistakenly believe they have oily skin when they, in fact, have a combination skin type. 

Unless an individual’s skin is oily all over, there are likely portions of skin that are dry or normal, which would qualify as combination skin.

The skin will often be shiny in the T-zone, which includes the forehead, nose, and chin. These areas tend to have more active oil glands than other parts of the face like the cheeks.

Those with combination skin tend to have cheeks that are flaky and dry. These dry areas are likely to be irritated by certain ingredients, especially chemically-created fragrances.

Dealing with both dry and oily skin requires finding the perfect balance and the appropriate skin care regimen. It’s always important to use moisturizers, but with combination skin, it can be hard to find the right balance between a cream that treats the dryness found on the cheeks and the oily areas found on the T-zone.

In this instance, it’s a good idea to include two different moisturizers in your skin care routine. Use a heavier moisturizer on your cheek area, or any skin that’s excessively dry, and use a lighter moisturizer on the oily parts of your face.

Exfoliating is essential for those with combination skin. Exfoliation will remove the dead skin cells on the dry part of the face, while clogged pores on the oily part will be unblocked and cleared.

Sensitive skin

Sensitive skin is an increasing problem. Surveys show that more than 50% of women and more than 40% of men consider themselves as having sensitive skin. Any skin type (normal, dry, oily, combination) can be in a state of sensitive skin. The sensitive skin type is a delicate and easily irritable skin. It reacts quickly to different aggressive factors such as ultraviolet radiations, heat, cold, rapid variations in temperature, pollution, stress, etc. 

Temperature changes, certain detergents, cosmetics, alcohol (applied on the skin) may easily cause irritations, blemishes, the sensation of “stretched skin”, itchiness and discomfort or turn the skin red.

Over time sensitive skin may become allergic and eczematous

People with sensitive skin have to be very careful how they take care of their skin, and use only products designed for sensitive skin. Ivatherm is dedicated to sensitive skincare!

If you have very sensitive skin, you may use products special formulated for even the most sensitive and intolerant skin.

Dehydrated skin

It is important to distinguish between dry skin and dehydrated skin.  Put simply, dry skin lacks sufficient oil while dehydrated skin lacks optimal water content. While dry skin is often also dehydrated, even oily skin may be dehydrated, due to a lack of water, not oil. Without this moisture, dehydrated skin looks dull, uneven and lifeless.

Millions of people experience dehydrated skin at some point in their lives due to exposure to environmental stressors, such as hot or cold temperatures, air conditioning, heating, daily cleansing and stress.

Hydration is critical to achieving ultimate skin wellness and aesthetically, dehydration may be most noticeable in the skin. Deeply hydrated skin looks vibrant, smooth, healthy and fresh; dehydrated skin feels tight and uncomfortable and appears dull, rough, flaky or red.

Skin hydration will be addressed by using Emollients/Moisturizers that are considered as a first line therapy in correcting dry or dehydrated skin.  The best option is to choose a product that has a combination of Occlusives +Humectants+ Hydrating Inducers agents.

Very dry, atopy-prone skin

Atopy refers to the genetic tendency to develop allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (hay fever), allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis (eczema). Atopic dermatitis or eczema is a chronic, relapsing, pruritic inflammatory skin disease that occurs most frequently in children, but also affects many adults. 

It is a common and increasing skin disease with affecting up to 25% of population due to environmental pollutants and household allergens, the generally reducing period of breastfeeding and stress levels in a modern world. Eczema represents approximately 1/6 of all skin diseases and women are more often affected than men.


Atopic dermatitis is characterized by very dry skin. In its acute form, atopic dermatitis you see an angry inflammation, often with some swelling, liquid bumps can be oozing, and crusting. The typical patient with atopic dermatitis is a person with an early flare of itchy eczema localized at typical sites such as the cheeks, the undersides of elbows and knees.


Accordingly, the management of atopic dermatitis aims through prevention and treatment to:

– minimize the number of incidences of the disease

– reduce the duration and degree of the flare up

The use of emollients in the treatment of eczema is pivotal, as they increased the hydration of the epidermis providing relief. They should be applied several times a day, and systematic use has been shown to reduce the need for corticosteroid creams.

In the 2018 European Consensus, the medical community agreed that emollients represent the first line therapy in eczema treatment to bring relief to abnormally dry skin, but also to prevent future outbreaks.    The best option is to choose an emollient that has a combination of Occlusive + Humectants + Hydrating Inducing agents , and to also use gentle Cleansing Gels, specially designed for atopic skin, with as few ingredients as possible (without parabens, soaps, fragrance) which also include moisturizing and soothing properties.

Whilst all moisturizers claim skin superficial hydration there are significant differences between them, not only in terms of efficiency but also in how they work. Therefore we must understand the different types of active compounds, and ideally your emollient should include all three;

  • OCCLUSIVES are considered first generation hydrating agents and they work by forming a protective layer on top of the skin to seal water in. Some of the old ones like petrolatum, lanolin are becoming less popular in both terms of efficacy and cosmetic preference
  • HUMECTANTS like Hyaluronic Acid and Glycerine are efficient and widely used. They are attract and absorb water from the air.
  • HYDRATION INDUCERS are a new generation which has been recently developed. They are represented by Aquaphylines that enable the transport of water at cellular level by stimulating the activity of Aquaporins, the membrane water channels that control the water content of the cells. The Aquaporins discovery was awarded a Nobel Prize in 2003.

Skin with redness and sensitive

If your face skin presents flushing or blushing or permanent redness, visible dilated vessels or spider veins, papules, pustules, or nodules, you may have rosacea. Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects the blood vessels and sebaceous glands, especially in the central zone of the face (nose, cheeks, forehead, and chin).

 It is more common in people with light skin, eyes, and hair and/or those with a family history of rosacea.


Type I

The most common type among the 4 described is the erythemato-telangiectatic rosacea (ETR) that exhibits a fine-textured skin, characterized by episodes of flushing that can last more than 10 minutes; this condition may also present with persistent central facial redness (erythema), usually accompanied by stinging or burning, and exacerbated when topical agents are applied. Dilated visible blood vessels (telangiectasias) are also common. This type is also called couperosis

Type II

Also called papulo-pustular rosacea (PPR), this is the classic presentation of rosacea and it usually occurs in middle-aged women. It is characterized by papules or pustules distributed in the central face, around the nose, mouth and eyes.

Type III & IV

In more severe cases, it may progress to chronic facial swelling (oedema).Type III (Phymatous rosacea) and Type IV (ocular rosacea) are severe and require immediate medical attention.

The Causes

The causes are yet unknown and even though this is a disease that is not life threatening but it does have a negative impact on quality of life; rosacea patients have a higher probability of experiencing depression, social phobia, and stress.  In addition to genetics, extremes of weather, spicy food, hot beverages, alcohol, exercise and stress are all through to play their part. 


You cannot cure but you can definitely control rosacea and improve how you look and feel. Rosacea is controlled by education, skincare and medical treatment.

Education means avoiding the triggers mentioned before, including some over-the-counter or prescription drugs that may worsen rosacea and trigger flushing.

Skincare refers to dermocosmetics especially formulated for rosacea, with a routine that consist of gentle cleansers, moisturizers to strengthen the skin barrier and the dermis to reduce the visibility of blood vessels, as well as corrective make-up with green corrector for redness. Never underestimate the role of sun protection in rosacea.

Redness with Flakes & Squams

If your skin has redness with squams, you may have Seborrheic dermatitis. Seborrheic dermatitis is a common, inflammatory skin condition that causes flaky, white to yellowish scales to form on oily areas, like nose, forehead,  upper back or scalp. Seborrheic dermatitis is the result of an excess of sebum that causes the overgrowth of the fungi Malassezia furfur (Pityrosporum ovale). 

This and other microbes release enzymes that produce inflammation in the respective areas and determine redness and itching!

Our skin continually produces new cells deep within the epidermis and these cells migrate upwards toward the surface as they mature, until they die and are eliminated (exfoliated). This is the natural cellular turnover.  In Seborrheic dermatitis the cellular turnover is accelerated, new cells are pushing the old ones and eliminate them as squams!

If this process is happening on scalp it is called dandruff!


Your oily, sebum-rich skin presents areas of redness, is flaking and it may be itching If this is happening on the oily skin of your face (the T area), scalp or body areas, it is a trademark for seborrheic dermatitis.


Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic condition. It cannot be cured but it can be highly effectively controlled. There are 3 factors to be taken in to consideration: the control of Mallasezia furfur development, the control of sebum production and of inflammation.

By using antifungal and antimicrobial agents, sebum regulating ingredients and anti-inflammatory actives, it is possible to reduce the redness and the squams, the production of sebum, and the inflammation and itching that accompanies Seborrheic Dermatitis.  You can get your skin back to normal.

Ivatherm has formulated a complete line designed for the sensitive sebum-rich skin with redness and squams giving you a flexible solution either for the scalp  and/or for the daily cleansing or daily care of face and body,  with products adapted to your skin.

Post-treatment skin and scar prevention

Injury repair is highly important in skin function. Wound repair/regeneration takes place in both epidermis and dermis but fibroblasts – a dermis cell – is instrumental in wound healing and scaring.


An altered function of fibroblasts can lead either to abnormal scars due accelerated action or to delayed wound healing and loss of ability to repair injury. Wound healing has three main phases: Inflammation (including stopping the bleeding if this is the case), tissue rebuilding and tissue remodeling

These phases do not represent separate and distinct events and are overlapping and continuous. In order to help the natural wound healing process and to prevent scar formation, it is advised to use dermocosmetics that act in all phases of the healing process.


The usage of a repairing, regenerating product can be utilized in the following types of wounds: puncture wounds, surgical wounds and incisions , bites and stings, contusions, superficial burns, blisters, abrasions, skin tears, ulcerative dermatitis, post-dermocosmetic procedures.


In real practice, one ingredient became a “star” in wound healing products.  The natural extract from the Mimosa Tenuiflora tree (aka the “skin tree”) that grows from Mexico to Brazil, has been used in wound healing from Mayan times.  Two major events in Mexico brought to light its therapeutical properties in the modern era:  the explosion of an oil company in 1984 and a 8,1 magnitude earthquake in 1985. On these occasions, the direct application of Mimosa Tenuiflora bark extract on the wounds of the burned patients, proved regeneration and preventing scar formation. Statistically, 20% of patients with severe burns do not survive, but the mexican Red Cross confirmed that the percentage dropped to 4% by using Mimosa tenuiflora extract.

More than 6000 statements in 3 years have confirmed spectacular results: an analgesic effect in less than 3 hours, complete reconstruction of the epidermis in 3-5 weeks and skin repigmentation in 3 months.

Mimosa tenuiflora is rich in components (tanins, saponins, alkaloid fraction, triterpenoids, lupeol, flavonoids, phytosterols, polysaccharides, arabinogalactans) with an important role in accelerating the natural healing process.

That is why Mimosa tenuiflora stays at the center of Ivatherm’ Cicaderm wound healing line .

Skin with fine lines and wrinkles

Our facial skin is constantly exposed to environmental stressors and damage can begin as early as the teenage years, even if the impact of this damage may not be seen until later in life.

Visible signs include dry, dull, rough and tight skin as well as fine lines or wrinkles that appear around the eyes.

Sun exposure and especially the UV rays cause premature photo-aging of the face.

Many brands are positioned and promoted by age. However, a women of 35 years who lived in rural area, worked in agriculture and has been constantly exposed to harsh climate conditions might present a more mature face, with more wrinkles than compared to a woman of 60 years that has lived in a controlled climate, has used hydrating creams and sun protection and so we, at Ivatherm,  prefer a different approach.

Ivatherm has formulated aging-well products that are recommended based on the type of skin (dry, oily) and the specific needs (wrinkles and dark circles, rejuvenation, lifting) rather than the age of the user.

Uneven skin with hyperpigmentation

In many cultures, having a whiter skin is considered an element of female beauty, and while not everyone is searching to whiten the skin, everybody wants to get rid of dark spots or hormone triggered pigmentation on face or hands. 

Regardless that the dark spots have different medical names like ephelides = freckles, solar lentigines = sun spots or senile lentigines = age spots, they look the same and have the same structure.

Hormone triggered pigmentation appear mostly in women and the most frequent and resistant is called melasma, a localized symmetric hyperpigmentation on face.                

Hyperpigmentation is the result of the deposition of melanin (the dark pigment) in the epidermis. Melanin is produced in the melanocytes and then transferred to keratinocytes that become darker and give the skin color.

The desire to have a lighter, even skin is universal and so if you want to “whiten“the skin or to even-out the dark spots, you must:

  • Stop the production of melanin in the melanocytes
  • Stop the transfer of melanin from the melanocytes to the keratinocytes
  • Accelerate the epidermis turn-over and exfoliate the “dark keratinocytes” while replacing them with “non-pigmented keratinocytes”

Therefore, when you are choosing Whitening Products, you should choose the ones who can act in all  3 depigmentation phases and can you can whiten the skin, enhance its radiance, reduce the melasma and the dark spots and even-out the skin tone!

Ivatherm has the right mix of products, formulated with a synergic cocktail of ingredients, to do just that!